Basic Component Strategy 2

Promote the adoption of physical education/physical activity (PE/PA) in schools.

Performance Measures
Performance Measure B.2.01

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Number of local education agencies where staff received professional development and technical assistance on the development, implementation or evaluation of recess and multi-component physical education policies.

The purpose of this performance measure is to determine reach of professional development and technical assistance on recess and quality physical education to local education agencies (LEAs).

Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to educate and inform staff about recess and quality physical education.

Unit of Analysis/Measure: Local education agencies (i.e., school districts)

Rate/Count/Percentage: Actual number of local education agencies (i.e., school districts) that have received professional development or technical assistance on recess and quality physical education.

How to Count and Frequency: Training tracking system. Annually.

Example How To: Develop a matrix or work with contracted technical assistance provider to develop a matrix that tracks the number of trainings offered, number of attendees at each training, and the number of LEAs that received professional development and technical assistance opportunities focused on the development, implementation or evaluation of recess and multi-component physical education policies.

Disparities Focus: Academic, health, SES, free and reduced priced lunch data

Performance Measure B.2.02

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Number of students in local education agencies where staff received professional development and technical assistance on the development, implementation or evaluation of recess and multi-component physical education policies.

The purpose of this performance measure is to determine reach of professional development and technical assistance to local education agencies to ensure that students have access to recess and quality physical education.

Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to ensure that students have access to recess and quality physical education.

Unit of Analysis/Measure: Students

Rate/Count/Percentage: Actual number of students in local education agencies (i.e., school districts) that have received professional development or technical assistance on recess and quality physical education.

How to Count and Frequency: Training tracking system, Student and School data reports, State Department of Education database, National Center for Education Statistics database. Annually.

Example How To: Use local databases (e.g. school registration and enrollment records maintained by the state, LEAs, and individual schools) to determine the reach, which is the number of students enrolled in the targeted LEAs.

Disparities Focus: Academic, health, SES, free and reduced priced lunch data

Performance Measure B.2.03

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Number of state-level multi-component physical education policies for schools developed and adopted by the state.

The purpose of this performance measure is to identify the number of state-level multi-component physical education policies for schools developed and adopted by the state that support the following: mandate/requirement for physical education to be taught at elementary, middle, and high school levels; strong teacher qualifications for all grade levels; no substitutions for physical education class participation; no waivers/exemptions for physical education class participation; adopted standards for physical education; requirement for those who teach physical education to participate in continuing education/professional development to maintain/renew licensure or certification.

Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees, working with and through other partners and decision making bodies, developed and adopted policies, through either individual or comprehensive (to include more than one component noted above) legislation/policy/regulation/mandate, to support quality physical education in schools and for students.

Unit of Analysis/Measure: Number of policy components addressed by state-level multi-component physical education policy.

Rate/Count/Percentage: Number of policy components addressed by state-level multi-component physical education policy.

How to Count and Frequency: Every 2-3 years. Shape of the Nation is a survey conducted by SHAPE America. Shape of the Nation is conducted every other year. http://www.shapeamerica.org/advocacy/son/

A multi-component physical education policy include the following 10 policy components:

  1. Does not permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for their required physical education credit
  2. Does not grant exemptions/waivers for school districts regarding physical education time or credit requirements
  3. State has its own standards for physical education
  4. State requires all who teach elementary school physical education to be certified/licensed
  5. State requires all who teach middle school/junior high school physical education to be certified/licensed
  6. State requires all who teach high school physical education to be certified/licensed
  7. State mandates elementary school physical education
  8. State mandates middle school/junior high school physical education
  9. State mandates high school physical education
  10. State requires professional development/continuing education to maintain/renew physical education teacher certification/licensure
Performance Measure B.2.04

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Number of state-level recess policies for schools developed and adopted by the state.

The purpose of this performance measure is to determine the number of states that have developed and/or adopted recess policies that require elementary schools to provide all students in all grades with at least 20 minutes of daily recess.

Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to develop and adopt recess policies to ensure that all students in K-5 or K-6 elementary schools have the opportunity to participate in at least 20 minutes of recess every day.

Unit of Analysis/Measure: State-level policy

Rate/Count/Percentage: Number of state-wide recess policies

How to Count and Frequency: Biannually. Shape of the Nation is a survey conducted by SHAPE America. Shape of the Nation is conducted every other year. The survey reports the presence of a state-level recess policy which clearly specified requirements of at least 20 minutes of daily recess for all students in elementary schools.

http://www.shapeamerica.org/advocacy/son/

The actual codified law/policy/legislation from the state decision making body (e.g., board of education, state legislature) which clearly specified requirements of at least 20 minutes of daily recess for all students in elementary schools.

Activities

Assess the professional development (PD) and technical assistance (TA) needs of local education agencies (LEAs) and school staff. States should conduct a needs assessment of LEAs, and LEAs should provide a needs assessment to schools. An assessment could include a scan of existing state policies, LEA policies, and any data on implementation. It could also include a short survey to LEAs on PD and TA related to policy development and implementation. Topics that should be the focus of the assessment:

  • Recess
    • Process of getting elementary schools to follow the SHAPE America recommendation that at least one daily 20-minute period of recess be provided to all students.
    • The do’s and don’ts of recess:
      • Allow children to apply skills learned in physical education (e.g., motor skill development, decision-making, cooperation, conflict resolution, and negotiation); and
      • Recess should not replace physical education or be used to meet time requirements set forth in physical education policies).
    • Evidence-based strategies for recess (e.g., encouraging students to be active; providing students with space, facilities, equipment, and supplies that can make participation in activity appealing; using point-of-decision prompts; and providing structured, organized physical activities (e.g., four-square, active tag, or flag football) for interested students).
    • How to evaluate recess and recess policy.
  • Physical Education
    • Overview of multi-component physical education policies.
    • Developing or revising state physical education standards to be based on the newly revised SHAPE America national physical education standards.
    • Aligning the physical education curriculum with state or national standards.
    • Creating physical education programs.
    • Instructional strategies such as increasing student moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class and/or strategies to improve students’ behavior skills, attitudes, and confidence in physical activity.
    • Protocols for student assessment, including those that go beyond fitness testing (e.g., assessment of student knowledge or achievement of state / national PE standards). This should include an overview of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program.
    • CDC publications, tools, and resources to support physical education/physical activity including the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity, the School Health Index, and CDC Strategies to Improve the Quality of Physical Education.
    • How to conduct an assessment of physical education/physical activity policies and practices using CDC's School Health Index or other school health assessment tool (e.g., Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program Inventory).

    Based on the assessment of PD and TA needs, identify relevant trainings and PD opportunities that are already available through organizations. If a training or PD opportunity is not already available, consider creating a new training, including when it will be offered and the method of those courses (e.g., in-person, online).

    Identify a process for providing PD to LEAs in the state. This might include: development of courses, communication/marketing of the courses, registration for courses, number of courses and courses offered per topic, potential costs involved, identification of trainers, tracking of people taking the courses, continuing education credit, etc.

    Identify a process for providing TA to LEAs in the state. This might include: who school districts and schools may call for assistance, the topic of the TA, how calls will be fielded, how questions will be tracked, and what types of tools, resources, and additional information are given, etc.

    Provide TA on all topics offered for PD.

    Identify an appropriate system for tracking PD and TA to establish, implement, and evaluate recess and multi-component physical education policies (see Tips for Tracking Professional Development & Technical Assistance in State Public Health Actions’ (1305) School Health Strategies).

  • Model/Sample Policies
    Multi-Component Physical Education, Including Recess

    From the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity Model Wellness Policy:
    Physical Education
    All K-12 students will receive daily physical education (150 minutes per week for elementary school students and 225 minutes per week for middle and high school students) for the entire school year. Physical Education will be standards- based, using national and state-developed standards. Physical Education classes will be sequential, building from year to year, and content will include motor skills, concepts and strategies, engagement in physical activity, physical fitness, responsible behavior and benefits of physical activity. Physical education programs will meet the needs of all students, including those who are not athletically gifted, and actively teach cooperation, fair play, and responsible participation. Students will be able to demonstrate competency through application of skills.

    Student involvement in other activities, including those involving physical activity (e.g. interscholastic or intramural sports), will not be substituted for physical education.

    1. Physical education classes will count toward graduation and GPA;
    2. Teacher to student ratio will be no greater than 1:25;
    3. The school will provide adequate space/equipment and conform to all safety standards;
    4. The school prohibits the use of physical activity and withholding of physical education class and other forms of physical activity as punishment;
    5. All Physical Education classes will be taught by a qualified physical education teacher and at least 50% of class time will be spent in moderate to vigorous activity;
    6. Physical education staff will receive professional development on a yearly basis;
    7. The school will conduct annual Fitnessgram and dietary intake assessments and will send confidential reports directly to parents, along with additional resources.

    Recess
    All elementary school students will have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess before the lunch period, during which moderate to vigorous physical activity will be encouraged. Outdoor recess will only be withheld in the event of extreme weather, as defined by the district (this may vary regionally). In the event that recess must be held indoors, teachers and staff will follow indoor recess guidelines, developed by the school’s Wellness Committee, to ensure adequate physical activity for students.


    From the Hawaii Department of Education Wellness Guidelines:
    The goal of physical education (PE) is to support all students in achieving the knowledge, skills and confidence to be physically active for a lifetime. Participation in PE also helps students reach the national recommendation of 60 minutes of physical activity per day.

    Regular physical activity builds healthy bones and muscles, improves muscular strength and endurance, reduces the risk for developing chronic disease, improves self-esteem, and reduces stress and anxiety. Research also shows that physical activity can help improve student academic achievement, including grades and standardized test scores.

    There are 10 guidelines to support physical education and activity:

    1. All required physical education classes are aligned with the Hawaii Content and Performance Standards for physical education.
    2. Required physical education classes have instructional periods totaling a minimum of 45 minutes per week for grades K-3, 55 minutes per week for grades 4-5, 107 minutes for elementary grade 6, and 200 minutes per week for secondary grades 6-12.
    3. The school ensures that state-certified physical education instructors teach all physical education classes and have a student/teacher ratio similar to other classes.
    4. Each secondary school's physical education department provides continuing support to students and their families to help them participate in physical activity outside of physical education class.
    5. All students have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess, during which students are encouraged to participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
    6. The school provides information to families to help them incorporate physical activity into students' lives.
    7. The school discourages extended periods (i.e., periods of two or more hours) of inactivity.
    8. When mandatory school-wide testing makes it necessary for students to be inactive for an extended period, schools will give students periodic breaks to stand and be moderately active unless the testing protocol specifies otherwise.
    9. The school does not use physical activity as punishment.
    10. The school does not withhold opportunities for physical activity as punishment.

    State School Health Policy Matrix 2.0

    More Policy Guidance

    Resources and Links

    Enhanced Component Strategy 2

    Implement quality physical education and physical activity in K-12 schools.

    Intervention (Enhanced only)

    Develop, implement, and evaluate comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP).

    Performance Measures
    Performance Measure 2.6.01

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    Number of local education agencies (LEAs) receiving professional development and technical assistance to establish, implement, evaluate comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP).

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine reach of professional development and technical assistance on establishing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive school physical activity programs.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to educate and inform staff in LEAs about establishing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive school physical activity programs.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Local education agencies (i.e., school districts)

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Actual number of local education agencies (i.e., school districts) that have received professional development or technical assistance on CSPAP. Please note: the denominator does not need to be reported for this performance measure.

    How to Count and Frequency: Training tracking system. Annually.

    Example How To: Develop a matrix or work with contracted technical assistance provider to develop a matrix that tracks the number of trainings offered, number of attendees at each training, and the number of LEAs that received professional development and technical assistance opportunities focused on comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP).

    Disparities Focus: Academic, health, SES, free and reduced priced lunch data

    Performance Measure 2.6.02

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    Number of students in local education agencies where staff received professional development and technical assistance on establishing, implementing, and evaluating CSPAP.

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine reach of professional development and technical assistance to local education agencies to ensure that students have access to comprehensive physical activity programs.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to ensure that students have access to comprehensive physical activity programs.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Students

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Actual number of students in local education agencies (i.e., school districts) that have received professional development or technical assistance on CSPAP.

    How to Count and Frequency: Training tracking system, Student and School data reports, State Department of Education database, National Center for Education Statistics database. Annually.

    Example How To: Use local databases (e.g. school registration and enrollment records maintained by the state, LEAs, and individual schools) to determine the reach, which is the number of students enrolled in the targeted LEAs. For example, if you are targeting 3 LEAs with professional development and technical assistance, report the total number of students enrolled in all 3 of those LEAs.

    Disparities Focus: Academic, health, SES, free and reduced priced lunch data

    Performance Measure 2.6.03

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    Percent of schools within local education agency that have established, implemented and/or evaluated CSPAP.

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine reach of professional development and technical assistance to local education agencies on establishing, implementing, and evaluating comprehensive school physical activity programs.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to ensure that students have access to comprehensive physical activity programs.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Schools

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Schools in targeted local education agencies where staff have no knowledge or limited knowledge about CSPAP and/or CSPAP has not been fully developed, implemented, or evaluated.

    How to Count and Frequency: 2014, 2016, 2018 School Health Profiles (2016 Principal Survey, Q5, 6f, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21). Biannually.

    Performance Measure 2.6.04

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    Percent of schools that provide or require daily physical education.

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine the percent of schools within the enhanced states' targeted local education agencies that require or provide daily physical education.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to increase the percentage of schools providing or requiring daily physical education, with a broad goal of increasing physical activity among K-12 students.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Schools

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Percent of schools within the targeted LEAs (i.e., school districts) that provide or require daily physical education.

    How to Count and Frequency: This performance measure will capture both written policy (i.e., required daily physical education) and/or practice (i.e., observed or usual schedule information about a school's daily physical education). Annually.

    Three possible options to consider for measurement of daily physical education:

    • Local wellness policies or school board policies.
    • A survey that is administered to elementary, middle, and high schools within the targeted LEAs that asks about the frequency of physical education and whether or not the school has specific requirements for how often physical education is taught.
    • Work with/through a district liason or contact to 1) gather school-level records and/or schedules that indicate how often physical education is required and/or provided can be reviewed and/or 2) conduct direct observations at schools within the targeted LEAs to determine the number of schools that provide or require daily physical education.
    Performance Measure 2.6.05

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    Number of state-level multi-component physical education policies for schools developed and adopted by the state.

    The purpose of this performance measure is to identify the number of state-level multi-component physical education policies for schools developed and adopted by the state that support the following: mandate/requirement for physical education to be taught at elementary, middle, and high school levels; strong teacher qualifications for all grade levels; no substitutions for physical education class participation; no waivers/exemptions for physical education class participation; adopted standards for physical education; requirement for those who teach physical education to participate in continuing education/professional development to maintain/renew licensure or certification.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees, working with and through other partners and decision making bodies, developed and adopted policies, through either individual or comprehensive (to include more than one component noted above) legislation/policy/regulation/mandate, to support quality physical education in schools and for students.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Number of policy components addressed by state-level multi-component physical education policy.

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Number of policy components addressed by state-level multi-component physical education policy.

    How to Count and Frequency: Every 2-3 years. Shape of the Nation is a survey conducted by SHAPE America. Shape of the Nation is conducted every other year. http://www.shapeamerica.org/advocacy/son/

    A multi-component physical education policy include the following 10 policy components:

    1. Does not permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for their required physical education credit
    2. Does not grant exemptions/waivers for school districts regarding physical education time or credit requirements
    3. State has its own standards for physical education
    4. State requires all who teach elementary school physical education to be certified/licensed
    5. State requires all who teach middle school/junior high school physical education to be certified/licensed
    6. State requires all who teach high school physical education to be certified/licensed
    7. State mandates elementary school physical education
    8. State mandates middle school/junior high school physical education
    9. State mandates high school physical education
    10. State requires professional development/continuing education to maintain/renew physical education teacher certification/licensure
    Performance Measure 2.6.06

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    Percent of K-12 students who attend PE classes on one or more days in an average week when they were in school (in the local education agencies targeted by FOA funding).

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine the extent to which quality physical education and physical activity are implemented in K-12 schools allowing students to attend PE classes on one or more days in an average week.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to increase attendance in physical education classes in K-12 schools.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Students

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Percent of students in grades 9-12 in targeted LEAs (i.e., school districts) who attend PE classes on one or more days in an average week when they were in school.

    How to Count and Frequency:

    • 2015, 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2015 State and Local, Q89)
    • While this performance measure covers grades K-12, states will only be expected to report data for grades 9-12 using YRBS.
    • Biannually
    Performance Measure 2.6.07

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    Percent of K-12 students participating in 60 minutes of daily physical activity (in the local education agencies targeted by FOA funding).

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine the extent to which quality physical education and physical activity are implemented in K-12 schools allowing students to participate in 60 minutes of daily physical activity.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to increase the number of K-12 students participating in 60 minutes of physical activity.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Students

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Percent of students in grades 9-12 in targeted LEAs (i.e., school districts) participating in 60 minutes of daily physical activity.

    How to Count and Frequency:

    • 2015, 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2015 State and local, Q85)
    • While this performance measure covers grades K-12, states will only be expected to report data for grades 9-12 using YRBS.
    • Biannually
    Performance Measure 2.6.08

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    Percent of K-12 students who are overweight or obese (in the local education agencies targeted by FOA funding).

    The purpose of this performance measure is to determine the extent to which K-12 schools are implementing quality physical education and physical activity in an effort to reduce overweight or obesity among students.

    Results Statements: In the US, CDC funded grantees worked to reduce overweight or obesity among students.

    Unit of Analysis/Measure: Students

    Rate/Count/Percentage: Percent of students in grades 9-12 in targeted LEAs (i.e., school districts) who are overweight or obese.

    How to Count and Frequency:

    • 2015, 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2015 State and Local, Q6-7)
    • While this performance measure covers grades K-12 in the targeted LEAs, states will expected to report, at a minimum, data for grades 9-12 using YRBS data. It also measures the percent of students who are overweight and obese.
    • Biannually
    Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP)

    CSPAP includes quality physical education and physical activity programming before, during, and after school, such as recess, classroom activity breaks, walk/bicycle to school, physical activity clubs.

    CSPAP a multi-component approach by which school districts and schools use all opportunities for students to be physically active, meet the nationally-recommended 60 minutes of physical activity each day, and develop the knowledge, skills, and confidence to be physically active for a lifetime. A CSPAP reflects strong coordination and synergy across all of the components: quality physical education as the foundation, physical activity before, during, and after school, staff involvement, and family and community engagement.1 Students can accumulate the recommended amount of physical activity through the provision of the multi-component CSPAP Policy

    The goals of a CSPAP1,2 are:
    To provide a variety of school-based physical activities to enable all students to participate in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each day To provide coordination among the CSPAP components to maximize understanding, application, and practice of the knowledge and skills learned in physical education so that all students will be fully physically educated and well-equipped for a lifetime of physical activity

    Practice CSPAP can be expanded to the five components

    Resource: CDC, in collaboration with American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) , developed a step-by-step guide [PDF - 6MB] for schools and school districts to develop, implement, and evaluate comprehensive school physical activity programs.

    1. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Comprehensive school physical activity programs. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education; 2008.
    2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR 2011;60(No. RR-5):28-33.
    Activities

    Suggested activities to meet performance measures 2.6.01 - 2.6.04:
    Assess the professional development (PD) and technical assistance (TA) needs of local education agencies (LEAs). States should conduct a needs assessment of LEAs, and LEAs should provide a needs assessment to schools. An assessment could include a scan of existing state policies, LEA policies, and any data on implementation. It could also include a short survey to LEAs. Topics that should be the focus of the assessment:

    1. Key background topics
      • Overview of comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP)
      • Overview of physical education
      • How to establish a school health council and/or school wellness committee
      • What are the key principles of PD
      • What are state-level multi-component physical education policies
      • How to develop and implement policies
    2. Topics on establishing a CSPAP
      • Ways to assess the availability of physical activity before, during, and after school, staff involvement, and family and community engagement as it relates to physical activity and identify areas for improvement (e.g., How to use CDC’s School Health Index)
      • How to create a plan to implement CSPAP
    3. Topics on implementing CSPAP
      • How to align the physical education curriculum with state or national standards. One example may include training on SHAPE America’s national physical education standards or on CDC's Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool
      • How to develop/implement protocols for student assessment, including those that go beyond fitness testing (e.g., assessment of student knowledge or achievement of state/national physical education standards)
      • How to implement instructional strategies such as increasing student moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class and/or strategies to improve students' behavior skills, attitudes, and confidence in physical activity
      • How to adopt and implement the Presidential Youth Fitness Program (PYFP)
      • Strategies on integrating physical activity into the school day, such as adding physical activity into classroom academic instruction
      • Strategies for recess
      • Strategies for walk and bicycle to school initiatives
      • Strategies for intramurals and physical activity clubs and interscholastic sports
      • Ways to involve families in school-based physical activity
      • Ways to work with the local community to establish shared-use or joint-use agreements
      • Ways to address staff wellness to support physical activity
      • How to become physical activity leaders or physical education or activity specialists
    4. Topics on evaluating CSPAP
      • Overview of evaluation including what are the types of evaluation and how to collect data
      • How to develop an evaluation plan
      • How to use evaluation data

    Based on the assessment of PD and TA needs specific to the above topics, identify relevant trainings and PD opportunities that are already available through organizations including CDC, PYFP, Lets Move Active Schools, SHAPE America, etc. If a training or PD opportunity is not already available, consider creating a new training, including when it will be offered and the method of those courses (e.g., in-person, online).

    Identify a process for providing PD to LEAs in the state. This might include: development of courses, communication/marketing of the courses, registration for courses, number of courses and courses offered per topic, potential costs involved, identification of trainers, tracking of people taking the courses, continuing education credit, etc.

    Identify a process for providing TA to LEAs in the state. This might include: who school districts and schools may call for assistance, the topic of the TA, how calls will be fielded, how questions will be tracked, and what types of tools, resources, and additional information are given, etc.

    Provide TA on all topics offered for PD.

    Identify an appropriate system for tracking PD and TA to establish, implement, and evaluate CSPAP (see Tips for Tracking Professional Development & Technical Assistance in State Public Health Actions’ (1305) School Health Strategies).

    Suggested activities to meet performance measure 2.6.03:
    Determine the needs of schools within the targeted LEAs. For example, states should work with the targeted LEAs to identify a needs assessment process to determine where schools are within the process of developing, implementing, and evaluating CSPAP. If you need to suggest where schools should start, you’ll want to recommend, in terms of process, that they take the steps to establish CSPAP. In terms of content, physical education is the foundation followed by recess.

    In order to establish, implement, and/or evaluate CSPAP in a school, the school should:

    1. Have a school health council and/or school health wellness committee.
    2. Have a school health coordinator.
    3. Provide PD and TA as described for performance measures 2.6.01 and 2.6.02.

    To establish CSPAP, steps are necessary:

    • Designate a physical activity leader to lead CSPAP. This should be the physical education teacher.
    • Create a CSPAP team.
    • Share the needs for a CSPAP and educate staff and others about the benefits of the intended activities delivered within a CSPAP.
    • Assess policies and practices of a CSPAP using the School Health Index. If a state/local completed the Physical Education Profiles, this might also be a useful resource.
    • Create a vision statement, goals, and objectives for your CSPAP.
    • Identify program outcomes, school-level outcomes, indicators, and youth outcomes.
    • Develop a comprehensive physical activity plan for CSPAP, which includes addressing policy development, resource planning and budgeting for the CSPAP. Specifically, the plan should include: identifying school resources, selecting the activities to be offered, finding time for physical activity, identifying activity spaces and facilities, identifying activity leaders, and completing budget.

    To implement CSPAP:

    • Understand the different phases of implementation: 1) planning phase, 2) training/introduction phase, 3) implementation phase (pilot, phased, full), 4) monitoring and evaluation phase, and 5) reporting phase.
    • Identify the implementation strategies (e.g., pilot, phase, or full-scale implementation).
    • Complete the implementation plan, which is a straightforward document that outlines exactly what will be done, by whom, when, and how.
    • Implement the plan, which includes incorporating all components of CSPAP in the schools: physical education programs, physical activity before and after school (e.g., walking and biking to school program, physical activity clubs and intramural programs, informal recreation or play on school grounds, physical activity in school-based child care programs, integrating physical activity in academic work during out of school hours, and interscholastic sports); physical activity during school (e.g., recess, physical activity integrated into classroom lessons, physical activity breaks in and outside the classroom, and lunchtime club or intramural programs); school employee wellness programs; and parent and community engagement.
    • Implement strategies to sustain CSPAP, this includes establishing and adopting policies, securing internal and external funding and other resources, and providing annual PD for administrators, teachers, and other school staff.

    To evaluate CSPAP:

    • Put into place measures to address two types of evaluation:
      • Process evaluation is the collection of information that allows program staff to determine how well the program is being implemented.
      • Outcome evaluation is the collection of information that helps staff assess what happens as a result of program activities.
    • Identify the type of program evaluation that will be used.
    • Identify the data collection methods (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, focus groups) that will be used.
    • Identify a plan for evaluation, including engaging stakeholders, describing the program's goals and activities as they align with the evaluation, and identifying the evaluation design.
    • Identify ways to use outcome evaluation data.

    Suggested activities to meet performance measure 2.6.04:
    Work directly with targeted LEAs to provide schools information on and address the following four areas to ensure a physical education program:

    • Policies and environment
    • Instruction
    • Student assessment
    • Curriculum

    Develop and implement schools’ policy and environmental actions that support physical education. These include:

    • Adequate instructional time (at least 150 minutes per week for elementary school students and 225 minutes per week for middle and high school students)
    • All classes be taught by qualified physical education specialists
    • Reasonable class sizes
    • Proper equipment and facilities

    Implement instructional strategies that support physical education. These strategies should emphasize the following:

    • The need for inclusion of all students
    • Adaptations for students with disabilities
    • Opportunities to be physically active most of class time
    • Well-designed lessons
    • Out-of-school assignments to support learning
    • Not using physical activity as punishment

    Implement regular student assessment within a physical education program. These should include the following:

    • The appropriate use of physical activity and fitness assessment tools
    • Ongoing opportunities for students to conduct self-assessments and practice self-monitoring of physical activity
    • Communication with students and parents about assessment results
    • Clarity concerning the elements used for determining a grading or student proficiency system

    Provide physical education programs that have well-developed, planned, and sequential curricula for physical education and follows national standards for physical education. These efforts include:

    • Understanding the needs of the schools
    • Establishing key partnerships
    • Developing policies to support CSPAP
    • Including physical education/physical activity in local wellness policies
    • Providing PD and TA on CSPAP
    • Working with key NGOs to provide PD and TA on CSPAP
    • Providing financial support

    Suggested activities to meet performance measure 2.6.05:
    Assess what state-level multi-component PE policies for schools currently exist.

    If none exist, or the policy(ies) could be revised/updated, develop written policy. The policy should describe:

    • who establishes the policy and the underlying legal authority;
    • the rationale for the policy;
    • the priority population (e.g., students and school staff members) to which the policy applies;
    • definitions of key terms;
    • a list and descriptions of the major activities to be conducted;
    • who will be responsible for implementing the policy;
    • who will enforce the policy and how they will do so;
    • positive incentives for compliance and consequences for noncompliance;
    • an evaluation plan, including how the effect of the policy will be measured and how the evaluation information will be used; and
    • a timeline indicating when the policy will be adopted, take effect, and expire.

    Communicate with LEAs about these new policies and help them implement them. This can be accomplished through PD and TA. States can also support LEAs to adopt these policies as well.

    Track the number of policies developed and then adopted in the state for physical education.

    Model/Sample Policies
    CSPAP: Physical Education and Physical Activity

    From the National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity Model School Wellness Policies:

    Daily Physical Education (P.E.) K-12. All students in grades K-12, including students with disabilities, special health-care needs, and in alternative educational settings, will receive daily physical education (or its equivalent of 150 minutes/week for elementary school students and 225 minutes/week for middle and high school students) for the entire school year. All physical education will be taught by a certified physical education teacher. Student involvement in other activities involving physical activity (e.g., interscholastic or intramural sports) will not be substituted for meeting the physical education requirement. Students will spend at least 50 percent of physical education class time participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Daily Recess. All elementary school students will have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess, preferably outdoors, during which schools should encourage moderate to vigorous physical activity verbally and through the provision of space and equipment.
    Schools should discourage extended periods (i.e., periods of two or more hours) of inactivity. When activities, such as mandatory school-wide testing, make it necessary for students to remain indoors for long periods of time, schools should give students periodic breaks during which they are encouraged to stand and be moderately active.

    Physical Activity Opportunities Before and After School. All elementary, middle, and high schools will offer extracurricular physical activity programs, such as physical activity clubs or intramural programs. All high schools, and middle schools as appropriate, will offer interscholastic sports programs. Schools will offer a range of activities that meet the needs, interests, and abilities of all students, including boys, girls, students with disabilities, and students with special health-care needs.
    After-school child care and enrichment programs will provide and encourage - verbally and through the provision of space, equipment, and activities - daily periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity for all participants.

    Physical Activity and Punishment. Teachers and other school and community personnel will not use physical activity (e.g., running laps, pushups) or withhold opportunities for physical activity (e.g., recess, physical education) as punishment.

    Safe Routes to School. The school district will assess and, if necessary and to the extent possible, make needed improvements to make it safer and easier for students to walk and bike to school. When appropriate, the district will work together with local public works, public safety, and/or police departments in those efforts. The school district will explore the availability of federal "safe routes to school" funds, administered by the state department of transportation, to finance such improvements. The school district will encourage students to use public transportation when available and appropriate for travel to school, and will work with the local transit agency to provide transit passes for students.

    Use of School Facilities Outside of School Hours. School spaces and facilities should be available to students, staff, and community members before, during, and after the school day, on weekends, and during school vacations. These spaces and facilities also should be available to community agencies and organizations offering physical activity and nutrition programs. School policies concerning safety will apply at all times.


    From the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity Model Wellness Policy:

    Physical Education
    All K-12 students will receive daily physical education (150 minutes per week for elementary school students and 225 minutes per week for middle and high school students) for the entire school year. Physical Education will be standards- based, using national and state-developed standards. Physical Education classes will be sequential, building from year to year, and content will include motor skills, concepts and strategies, engagement in physical activity, physical fitness, responsible behavior and benefits of physical activity. Physical education programs will meet the needs of all students, including those who are not athletically gifted, and actively teach cooperation, fair play, and responsible participation. Students will be able to demonstrate competency through application of skills.

    Student involvement in other activities, including those involving physical activity (e.g. interscholastic or intramural sports), will not be substituted for physical education.

    • Physical education classes will count toward graduation and GPA;
    • Teacher to student ratio will be no greater than 1:25;
    • The school will provide adequate space/equipment and conform to all safety standards;
    • The school prohibits the use of physical activity and withholding of physical education class and other forms of physical activity as punishment;
    • All Physical Education classes will be taught by a qualified physical education teacher and at least 50% of class time will be spent in moderate to vigorous activity;
    • Physical education staff will receive professional development on a yearly basis;
    • The school will conduct annual Fitnessgram and dietary intake assessments and will send confidential reports directly to parents, along with additional resources.

    Physical Activity
    All students will have opportunities for physical activity beyond physical education class on a daily basis. Classroom health education will reinforce the knowledge and skills needed to maintain a physically active lifestyle. Students will be encouraged to reduce sedentary time, and will not be required to engage in sedentary activities for more than two hours without an opportunity to stretch and move around. Short (3-5 minute) “energy release” physical activity breaks will be provided between classes in elementary school, for example, programs such as Take 10! And ABC for Fitness will be used to incorporate short activity breaks into the day.

    Teachers will be expected to incorporate opportunities for physical activity in the classroom whenever possible and will be encouraged to serve as role models by being physically active alongside the students.

    Recess
    All elementary school students will have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess before the lunch period, during which moderate to vigorous physical activity will be encouraged. Outdoor recess will only be withheld in the event of extreme weather, as defined by the district (this may vary regionally). In the event that recess must be held indoors, teachers and staff will follow indoor recess guidelines, developed by the school’s Wellness Committee, to ensure adequate physical activity for students.

    Physical Activity Programs
    Elementary, middle, and high school will offer extracurricular physical activity programs, such as physical activity clubs and intramural programs. High school and middle school will offer interscholastic sports programs to all students.

    Safe Routes to School
    The school district will assess and, if necessary and to the extent possible, make needed improvements to make it safer and easier for students to walk and bike to school. For example, crossing guards may be stationed around the school to facilitate safe walking and biking school commutes, and bike racks will be available. The school will work together with local public works, public safety, and/or police departments in those efforts.


    From North Carolina GCS-S-000 Policy regarding physical education in the public schools:

    Physical Education
    (a) To address issues such as overweight, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and Type II diabetes, students enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grades are to participate in physical activity as part of the district's physical education curriculum. Elementary schools should consider the benefits of and move toward having 150 minutes per week with a certified physical education teacher throughout the 180 day school year. Middle schools should consider the benefits of and move toward having 225 minutes per week of Healthful Living Education with certified health and physical education teachers throughout the 180-day school year.

    (b) The physical education course shall be the environment in which students learn, practice and receive assessment on developmentally appropriate motor skills, social skills, and knowledge as defined in the North Carolina Healthful Living Standard Course of Study and foster support and guidance for being physically active. In order to meet enhanced goals, these classes should be the same class size as other regular classes.

    Recess and Physical Activity
    (a) Structured/unstructured recess and other physical activity (such as, but not limited to, physical activity time, physical education or intramurals) shall not be taken away from students as a form of punishment. In addition, severe and inappropriate exercise may not be used as a form of punishment for students.

    (b) A minimum of 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity shall be provided by schools for all K-8 students daily. This requirement can be achieved through a regular physical education class and/or through activities such as recess, dance, classroom energizers, or other curriculum-based physical activity programs. However, such use of this time should complement and not substitute for the physical education program.

    (c) The physical activity required by this section must involve physical exertion of at least a moderate to vigorous intensity level and for a duration sufficient to provide a significant health benefit to students.


    Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Policy Continuum


    State School Health Policy Matrix 2.0

    More Policy Guidance

    Resources and Links